The AK-101 is a selective fire weapon that can be fired in either semi-automatic or fully automatic mode. The disassembly procedure for the AK-101 is identical to that of the AK-74. The AK-101 has an attachment rail installed on the side of the receiver for mounting scopes and other optical sights, which will accept most types of Russian and European AK optics. The rifle accepts most synthetic and metal ammo magazines with 30 round capacity. The AK-101 has a 406 mm (16.0 in) barrel with an AK-74 style muzzle brake attached to the barrel to control muzzle climb.
The AK-102, AK-104 and AK-105 are the designations given to the more compact carbine variants of the AK-10x rifle series, firing the 5.56×45mm NATO, 7.62×39mm M43 and 5.45×39mm M74 rifle rounds respectively. These carbines differentiate themselves from the normal rifles of the series in that they have much shorter barrels, only 314 mm (12.4 in) in length. These AK-10x carbines, much like their rifle counterparts, were made primarily for export.
A common misconception is that the AK-101 has entered service as the main assault rifle of the Russian Federation, but this is not true; the AK-74M is still the main assault rifle, the AK-105 is being introduced alongside, both chambered for 5.45×39mm. The AKM firing 7.62 mm Soviet rounds, is in limited service with selected units in the Russian army, and the AK-103 is in service with some Russian civil police agencies. The advanced AN-94 is entering limited service in the elite forces of the Russian military, some Russian police forces, and the Internal Ministry of Affairs.
The AK-101 is chambered in 5.56mm NATO and features black, glass-filled polyamide, with a side folding stock. The side folding stock looks similar to a normal fixed stock, however it folds and locks securely to the side of the receiver.